Researchers from China presented the case of an 11-year-old patient with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Based on this case, the team led by Lingli Pan from the Department of Emergency and Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University in Chengdu, China concluded that early screening for thyroid function and H pylori infection is recommended in children. This, the researchers said, can ensure that children with ITP receive the treatment they need in a timely manner.

Although in most developed countries, primary ITP (ie, ITP that occurs without an identifiable cause) is much more common than secondary ITP or ITP that is associated with an underlying disorder, this is not the case in developing countries. In fact, most studies from developing countries show that secondary ITP occurs more frequently than primary ITP.

B- and T-cell responses are crucial in the pathogenesis of ITP. This may explain the association of the disease with other autoimmune diseases.

Read more about the pathophysiology of ITP

The patient presented here was given anti-H pylori treatment and thyroxine supplementation. This led to an increase in their platelet count.

“Therefore, we recommend early screening for thyroid function and H pylori and timely early intervention for the treatment and prognosis of children with immune thrombocytopenia,” the researchers wrote.

Reports have shown that H pylori infections can cause a variety of autoimmune diseases including ITP.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is also an autoimmune disease and the most common type of thyroiditis, which is characterized by the immune system mistakenly attacking the cells of the thyroid gland and causing hypothyroidism. 

ITP is characterized by abnormally low platelet counts, often below 100,000/µL, causing bleeding and bruising.

The case study is published in Frontiers in Pediatrics.


Yang L, Xiao D, Li X, Lai C, Chen Y, Pan L. Case report: a case of immune thrombocytopenia combined with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Helicobacter pylori infection in a child. Front Pediatr. Published online June 9, 2023. doi:10.3389/fped.2023.1169064