Researchers reported that pregnant women with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to a C1-inhibitor deficiency are mostly able to have successful pregnancies and deliveries if appropriate management and counseling is offered, according to a study published in Frontiers in Medicine. 

Previous studies have shown that women with HAE experience a higher incidence of attacks with greater severity compared to their male counterparts. Women with HAE also experience a higher prevalence of reproductive failure, suggesting a relationship between fertility and the kallikrein-kinin pathway. 

The authors of the study sought to investigate how exposure to plasma-derived C1-inhibitors during pregnancy affects mothers with HAE and their children. To carry out their research, they conducted interviews with women with HAE who had undergone at least one pregnancy. 

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“The overall goal of the study was to compare the immediate pregnancy outcomes in accordance with the in-utero exposure to plasma-derived C1-inhibitors,” the authors wrote. 

Read more about HAE etiology 

During the semistructured interviews, the researchers asked the participants specific questions relating to their experience with HAE (age of onset, frequency of attacks, and triggers) and their pregnancy (type of pregnancy, illnesses during pregnancy, and placental abnormalities). 

The research team analyzed 168 pregnancies relating to 87 women with HAE. The results revealed that around one-third of women (n=51) underwent treatment with plasma-derived C1-inhibitors, and that the treatment was administered according to disease severity. The researchers also discovered that children exposed to in utero plasma-derived C1-inhibitors and those who were not had normal birth weights and Apgar scores. 

“For pregnant C1-inhibitor deficiency HAE women being treated with plasma-derived C1-inhibitors, our findings are reassuring and might lead to an improvement of both the knowledge about treatments and the experience of HAE itself,” they concluded. 


Triggianese P, Senter R, Petraroli A, et al. Pregnancy in women with hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency: results from the ITACA cohort study on outcome of mothers and children with in utero exposure to plasma-derived C1-inhibitorFront Med (Lausanne). 2022;9:930403. doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.930403