Junction: Immunology

Case Report: Fulminant Liver Failure After Trauma in a Patient With CAD

A 70-year-old woman developed severe hemolysis and fulminant liver failure following a hip fracture due to a mechanical fall, and detailed examination suggested a diagnosis of cold agglutinin disease (CAD). The case was reported by Nanduri et al in Chest and was presented at the Chest 2021 Annual Meeting. The patient remained in critical condition…

Simultaneous Onset of CAD and COVID-19 Reported in Case Study

A case of simultaneous onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and cold agglutinin disease (CAD) was recently reported in Cureus. The 51-year-old male patient was found to be positive for COVID-19 via reverse polymerase chain reaction testing while being positive for immunoglobulin (Ig) G and C3 complement antibodies (indicators of…

PPIs Associated With Increased Risk of Developing Autoimmune Diseases

A Taiwanese team of researchers discovered that the prescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with a higher risk of developing autoimmune disease, including cold agglutin disease (CAD), according to a study published in Frontiers in Immunology.  The team hypothesized that PPIs disrupt host immunity and increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. PPIs are…

The Use of Data Science Could Accelerate Rare Disease Research

Five experts in the rare disease and data science fields shared their experiences and thoughts on how advancements in data science can advance the treatment of rare diseases. David Scheer, president of Scheer & Company, moderated the panel discussion, which was part of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Breakthrough Summit 2021. Presenters included…

Cold Agglutinin Disease Guideline Recommendations

CAD Patients Use Significantly More Healthcare Resources

A team of Danish researchers discovered that patients with cold agglutinin disease (CAD) utilize significantly more healthcare resources than the general population, both prior to diagnosis and 1-year post-diagnosis, according to a study published in Current Medical Research and Opinion. CAD is a rare form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia that currently has no approved treatment.…

Patients With Autoimmune Cytopenias Can Manage Flares After SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

A team of Italian researchers discovered that the flares experienced by patients with autoimmune cytopenias, such as cold agglutinin disease, were manageable after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The benefit of receiving the vaccines from Pfizer-BioNtech, Moderna, and Astra-Zeneca far outweigh any potential risks, according to a letter published in the American Journal of Hematology.  Because of…

CAD Symptoms

Cold Agglutinin Disease Signs and Symptoms

Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare form of hemolytic anemia provoked by exposure to cold temperatures. When exposed to low enough temperatures, cold agglutinin antibodies demonstrate an increased affinity for carbohydrate antigens present on red blood cells (RBCs), leading to extravascular hemolysis. Cold agglutinins can arise in the setting of an underlying disease, such…

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